Kevin Tarlow, PhD
Counseling Psychologist

Percentage of Nonoverlapping Data (PND) Calculator

The percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND) is a widely used statistic for the measurement and meta-analysis of single-case experimental designs. The calculator below yields exact p-values for PND.

Enter nA, nB, and k:

nA, the number of scores in the baseline phase
nB, the number of scores in the treatment phase
k, the number of treatment phase scores that exceed the maximum score in the baseline phase

p =

How to Cite: Tarlow, K. R., & Penland, A. (2016). Percentage of Nonoverlapping Data (PND) Calculator. Retrieved from

See Also: Tarlow, K. R., & Penland, A. (2016). Outcome assessment and inference with the Percentage of Nonoverlapping Data (PND) single-case statistic. Practice Innovations, 1(4), 221-233.

R Code: Tarlow, K. R., & Penland, A. (2016, August). PND for single-case research (R code). Retrieved from

© 2016–2018 Kevin Tarlow