Kevin Tarlow, PhD
Counseling Psychologist


Percentage of Nonoverlapping Data (PND) Calculator

The percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND) is a widely used statistic for the measurement and meta-analysis of single-case experimental designs. The calculator below yields exact p-values for PND.

Enter nA, nB, and k:

nA, the number of scores in the baseline phase
nB, the number of scores in the treatment phase
k, the number of treatment phase scores that exceed the maximum score in the baseline phase

PND =
p =


How to Cite: Tarlow, K. R., & Penland, A. (2016). Percentage of Nonoverlapping Data (PND) Calculator. Retrieved from http://www.ktarlow.com/stats/pnd

See Also: Tarlow, K. R., & Penland, A. (2016). Outcome assessment and inference with the Percentage of Nonoverlapping Data (PND) single-case statistic. Practice Innovations, 1(4), 221-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pri0000029

R Code: Tarlow, K. R., & Penland, A. (2016, August). PND for single-case research (R code). Retrieved from http://ktarlow.com/stats


© 2016–2018 Kevin Tarlow